Caribbean Pine
Pinus caribaea

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  • terminal buds are affected causing malformation and permanent stunting
  • seedlings in nurseries and trees on unfavourable sites are attacked
  • heavy infestation can eventually kill host

Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (Macquart) (Adelgidae)

  • sparse foliage of trees, especially of the upper crown
  • dark foliage due to black sooty mould growing on honey dew produced by scales
  • scales visible on needles
  • loss of increment and die-back

Red Wax Scale Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Coccidae)

(reproduced from Merrifield, L.E. & Howcroft, N.H.S., 1975)

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Michael F. Schneider, 1999