Red Cedar
Toona australis)

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  • wilt and defoliation of terminal shoots due to longitudinal mines made by larvae
  • development of lateral branches with many leaders
  • bushy appearance of tree
  • stem crooked and twisted

Cedar Shoot Borer Hypsipyla robusta (Moore) (Pyralidae)

(reproduced from Gray, B. & Wylie, F.R., 1974)

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Michael F. Schneider, 1999