Hoop Pine
Araucaria cunninghamii)

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  • leaf wilt starting from the tree top downwards and from the tips of the branches inwards
  • crown more or less defoliated, leader without leaves
  • mud packs at base of the stem
  • base of the stem with ‘pipe
  • hollow sound of stem when tapped
  • trees and seedlings of all ages are affected

Coptotermes elisae (Desneux) (Rhinotermitidae)

  • leaf wilt starting at the lower branches moving upwards to the tip of the crown and from the tips of the branches inwards
  • distinctive mines in the cortex between the healthy green and wilt yellow or brown area of the branchlets
  • mainly 4 to 11 year old trees are infested
  • infestation can kill host on long term

Hylurdrectonus araucariae (Schedl) (Scolytidae)

  • pin- and shot-holes in stem and timber
  • holes are free of sawdust and frass
  • sawdust-like powder can be often found on the bark below the holes
  • sometimes resin is dripping from the borehole
  • wood adjacent to the hole is often stained by the fungal stain

Pin- and shot-hole borers (Platypodidae and Scolytidae)

  • surface of leaves and twigs eaten
  • branches are defoliated and start to wilt
  • infested trees appear brown
  • last instar caterpillars can be found at base of the stem

Millionaire moth Milionia isodoxa Prout (Geometridae)

(reproduced from Wylie, F.R., 1974)

  • large borehole ( 10 - 15 mm) in vicinity of nodes
  • attack results in degrade of timber, but can be fatal if attack sustained
  • generally injured or pruned trees with resin flow are attacked
  • attack clustered on trees older than four years

Hoop pine weevil Vanapa oberthuri (Pouillaude) (Curculionidae)

  • larger boreholes in standing or recently felled trees
  • attack of stressed and injured trees after fire or infestation with primary pest
  • often infested simultaneously by several pests, resulting in the host’s death
  • degrade of timber

Curculionidae and/or Cerambycidae wood borers

  • stem of seedling debarked or ringbarked at its base

Seedlings damaged by grasshoppers (Orthoptera)

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Michael F. Schneider, 1999