Klinkii Pine
Araucaria hunsteinii)

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  • pin- and shot-holes in stem and timber
  • holes are free of sawdust and frass
  • sawdust-like powder can be often found on the bark below the holes
  • sometimes resin is dripping from the borehole
  • wood adjacent to the hole is often stained by the fungal blue stain

Pin- and shot-hole borers (Platypodidae and Scolytidae)

  • large borehole ( 10 - 15 mm) in vicinity of nodes
  • attack results in degrade of timber, but can be fatal if attack sustained
  • generally injured or pruned trees with resin flow are attacked
  • attack clustered on trees older than four years

Hoop pine weevil Vanapa oberthuri (Pouillaude) (Curculionidae)

  • larger boreholes in standing or recently felled trees
  • attack of stressed and injured trees forest fire or infestation with primary pest
  • often infested simultaneously by several pests, resulting in the host’s death
  • degrade of timber

Curculionidae and/or Cerambycidae wood borers

  • stem of seedling debarked or ringbarked at its base

Seedlings damaged by grasshoppers (Orthoptera)

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Michael F. Schneider, 1999