Pinus patula
(Pinaceae)

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  • severe defoliation of the attacked tree
  • bundles of needles are cut off at their base and pile up
    under the tree
  • egg masses can be found on the bark below branches
  • infestation of plantation usually starts from the ridge
    and proceeds downwards into the valley
  • outbreaks occur periodically every ten to 20 years

Lymantria ninayi Bethune-Baker (Lymantriidae) and
other
lepidopteran defoliators


(right photo courtesy of J. W. Dobunaba)

  • terminal buds are affected causing malformation and
    permanent stunting
  • seedlings in nurseries and trees on unfavourable sites
    are attacked
  • heavy infestation can eventually kill host

Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (Macquart) (Adelgidae)

 

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Michael F. Schneider, 1999