Professur für Forstzoologie und Entomologie Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg i.Br. Professur für Forstzoologie
und Entomologie
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg i.Br.


Professur für Forstzoologie
und Entomologie
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität
Freiburg i.Br.
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Publikationen D. Klimetzek

Klimetzek D (1970) Beschreibung eines neuen Brutkammertyps für Formicare. Entomophaga 15: 149-151.

Description of a new type of breeding chamber for formicaria: The construction allowed maintaining a high degree of ambient humidity and provides for an exchange of air through its permeable end made from plaster.

Klimetzek D (1970) Die Bedeutung des Kleinstandorts für die Verbreitung hügelbauender Waldameisen der Formica rufa-Gruppe (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Z ang Ent 66: 84-95.

The significance of microsite for the distribution of mound-building ants of the Formica rufa-group: A study of 260 nests on an area of 1640 ha near Freiburg at 300-700 m alt., by species, aspect, altitude, stand type etc. Western aspects and lower slopes appeared to be preferred. Nest density was greatest in Silver Fir, rather low in hardwood stands, and very variable in mixed conifer/hardwood stands.

Klimetzek D, Wellenstein G (1970) Vorkommen und Verbreitung hügelbauender Waldameisen der Formica rufa-Gruppe (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Baden-Württemberg. Allg Forst u Jagdztg 141: 172-178.

Abundance and distribution of hill-building red wood-ants of the Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Baden-Württemberg: The distribution of wood-ants in Baden-Württemberg (W. Germany) shows four different centers of very dense population concentration. The pattern of distribution of wood-ants in the 16 forest areas shows a gradient of decreasing abundance from the west to the east and from the south to the northeast.

Klimetzek D (1971) Vergleichende Studien über das Auftreten nadelfressender Kiefernraupen in Süddeutschland seit 1810. I. Schadgebiete in der Rheinpfalz. Z ang Ent 68: 264-274.

Comparative studies on the occurrence of phytophagous pine caterpillars in South Germany since 1810. I. Areas of infestation in the Rheinpfalz: The occurrence of pine caterpillars in two regions of the Rheinpfalz (Rhineland/Palatinate) since 1810 is traced by a close study of documents, with special reference to Bupalus piniarius (L.), Panolis flammea (Schiff.), Lymantria monacha (L.), Dendrolimus pini (L.) and Diprion pini (L.). In order to evaluate the frequency of outbreaks, an index rate was calculated from each year, using data on the excessive occurrence of single species and the extent of economic damage. The results for the Rheinpfalz were compared with those of the forested district Schwetzingen in the north of Baden. There were considerable differences between the species; in the Rheinpfalz B. piniarus, L. monacha and P. flammea predominated, whereas in Schwetzingen these species were less abundant on account of the more continental character of the climate and it was Dendrolimus pini and Diprion pini, which typically need warmth and dryness, that caused most of the outbreaks. Local climatic differences, climatic changes, differences in structure and age of stands etc. are discussed. In all the regions studied, single species appeared more frequently at certain periods, the cause apparently being associated with climate. In spite of apparently favourable conditions, there was a distinct decline in the frequency of outbreaks in the period 1931-70.

Klimetzek D (1972) Veränderungen in einem natürlichen Vorkommen hügelbauender Waldameisen der Formica rufa-Gruppe (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) im Verlauf von drei Jahren. Ins sociaux 19: 1-5.

Changes in a naturally occurring population of mound-building wood ants of the Formica rufa group (Hym., Formicidae) over three years: Compares the results of a complete survey in 1966 in a W. German forest with those of another in 1969. The number of occupied mounds decreased from 260 (= 16/100 ha) to 208, but the turnover of nesting sites (listed) was greater than that indicated by these figures. The reductions were significant in mounds of F. rufa and F. lugubris, but not in those of F. polyctena, F. nigricans (F. pratensis) and F. truncorum.

Klimetzek D (1972) Veränderungen in der Forstamtseinteilung der Pfalz. Allg Forst u Jagdztg 143: 150-151.

About changes in the boundary lines between the forest districts of the Palatinate: The different distribution of the forest districts of the Palatinate (W. Germany) is shown for different periods since 1816 in view to a subsequent analysis of insect outbreaks per district in this region.

Klimetzek D (1972) Krankheiten und Schädlinge im Forst. Forstarchiv 43: 188-190.

Forest pests and diseases: A review on recent developments in forest entomology and protection concerning chemical, biological and integrated control as well as economic aspects.

Klimetzek D (1972) Das Vorkommen des Buchenrotschwanzes (Dasychira pudibunda L.) in der Pfalz. Allg Forst u Jagdztg 143: 192-195 [Translation: The occurrence of the pale tussock (Dasychira pudibunda L. ) in the Palatinate (W. Germany). Environment Canada No. OOENV TR-2419/1984: 13 pp].

The occurrence of Dasychira pudibunda L. in the Palatinate (West Germany) since 1810 was studied by means of an analysis of historical data in forestry districts. The moth was found to have occurred often and in a large area of the Palatinate and to have predominated in the mountainous districts of the central and the northern Pfalzer Wald. The frequency and intensity of the infestations in single forestry districts depended on the amount of beech woods. The three most important infestations took place in 1892-95, 1901-03 and 1941-44. There was a marked similarity between the population fluctuations of D. pudibunda and those of Bupalus piniarius. From about 1940, outbreaks of Bupalus piniarius L., which infests pine, became increasingly scarce, whereas those of D. pudibunda showed a marked increase; it is suggested that this has resulted from the increasing cultivation of hardwoods since 1925-30, especially beech, and the subsequent decrease of pines.

Klimetzek D (1972) Die Zeitfolge von Übervermehrungen nadelfressender Kiefernraupen in der Pfalz seit 1810 und die Ursachen ihres Rückganges in neuerer Zeit. Z ang Ent 71: 414-428.

The succession of outbreaks of phytophagous pine caterpillars in the Palatinate since 1810 and the causes of their decline in recent years: Outbreaks since 1810 in pine forests in the Palatinate, West Germany, of Bupalus piniarius (L.), Dendrolimus pini (L.), Diprion pini (L.), Lymantria monacha (L.) and Panolis flammea (Schiff.) were investigated from official records that included evaluation of economic damage. The most severe outbreaks occurred in 1824-40 and 1888-1905. Whereas Dendrolimus pini, L. monacha and P. flammea predominated at the beginning of the period, outbreaks of B. piniarius and Diprion pini occurred mostly at the end of the 19th century. No significant influence of climate could be detected, although short-term weather conditions possibly have some influence. The frequency and intensity of outbreaks has recently become less, and it is concluded from a study of climatic records and the use of insecticides, and also comparison with the history of Dasychira pudibunda (L.) on hardwoods, that the decrease is probably a result of the increasing cultivation of hardwoods (especially beech) at the expense of pines since 1925-30. The most probable cause of the improvement since 1905 is the increasing proportion of beech; the cessation of litter collection may be a contributory factor.

Klimetzek D (1972) Die Verbreitung nadelfressender Kiefernraupen in der Pfalz (mit einer tabellarischen Übersicht über das Auftreten schädlicher Forstinsekten seit 1810). Mitt d Pollichia 19: 5-38 [Translation: The distribution of needle-feeding pine caterpillars in the Palatinate (with a tabulated review of outbreaks of injurious forest insects since 1810). Environment Canada No. OOENV TR-1115/1976: 56 pp].

In these studies on the pattern of outbreaks of Bupalus piniarius (L.), Panolis flammea (Schiff.), Lymantria monacha (L.), Dendrolimus pini (L.) and Diprion pini (L.) on pines in the Palatinate, West Germany, since 1810, information is presented on the frequency of outbreaks of a given species in a given forest district. The relation between outbreaks and the extent of the wooded area within the district (and the proportion of pines) was studied by means of a regression analysis. A correlation was found between the occurrence of outbreaks and the extent of the pine forests in a given forest district. Most of the outbreaks occurred round two separate centres; these were (in the north-west) in the region of the Kaiserslauterner Senke and the north of the Pfalzer Wald and (in the south) in the gap between the southern Pfalzer Wald and the Zweibrucker Westrich. Outbreaks of B. piniarius were by far the most numerous and widespread; they occurred in almost all the forest districts. Outbreaks of P. flammea and L. monacha were restricted to certain types of site. The distribution of each species within the area is discussed. Information on the levels of infestation by each of the five species in individual districts between 1810 and 1970 is shown in tables.

Klimetzek D (1973) Die Variabilität der Standortansprüche hügelbauender Waldameisen der Formica rufa-Gruppe (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mitt Bad Landesver Naturkunde u Naturschutz 11: 9-25.

The variability of the site requirements of hill-building wood ants of the Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): By means of surveys in 1966, 1969 and 1972 of nests of red wood ants of the group of Formica rufa L. in a wooded area of 1640 ha in the south-west of the Black Forest (Germany) at altitudes of 290-820 m, the environmental factors influencing colony foundation were analysed. In the three years, nest density/100 ha was 15.9, 12.7 and 13.7, respectively. The proportion of the various species remained constant. F. rufa was the most abundant, followed by F. polyctena Forst.; F. nigricans Emery (pratensis Retz.) was less frequent, and only a few nests of F. lugubris Zett. and F. truncorum F. were found. Most of the nests of the first two species belonged to colonies, F. rufa having twice as many nests/colony as F. polyctena. In 1966, population density was greatest at altitudes of 300-500 m but in 1972 (owing to a marked increase in populations of F. polyctena at the higher altitudes) at both 300-500 and 600-700 m. The most influential environmental factor in the siting of nests proved to be exposure to sunlight; more than 60% of the nests of F. rufa, F. polyctena and F. nigricans faced south, regardless of altitude and direction of the slopes in the observation area. Colonisation therefore occurred mostly on sloping forest tracks and at the edge of forests; often sites were preferred in small valleys that had high rates of air and soil humidity and abundant shrub vegetation throughout the year. Nest sites were frequently changed, but a clear preference was always shown for pure stands of fir [Abies] and also mixed stands of fir, spruce and beech, including their border areas.


Klimetzek D (1973) Vorläufige Mitteilung über das Vorkommen von Raptiformica sanguinea (Latr.) und Coptoformica exsecta (Nyl.) im Südschwarzwald. Mitt Bad Landesver Naturkunde u Naturschutz 11: 27-28.


The occurrence of Raptiformica sanguinea (Latr.) und Coptoformica exsecta (Nyl.) in the southern Black forest (W. Germany): Both species only reach approx. 10 % of nest densities as compared to the wood-ants belonging to the Formica rufa-group in the same region.

Klimetzek D (1975) Umfang und Auswirkung von Begiftungsaktionen gegen Kiefernraupen in Nordbayern. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 146: 186-191.

Extent and consequences of insecticide applications against pine caterpillars in northern Bavaria: From 1925 to 1970, a total of 42 000 ha of coniferous forest in northern Bavaria (in the administrative districts Oberfranken, Mittelfranken and Oberpfalz) were treated with chemical insecticides for the control of Bupalus piniarius (L.), Panolis flammea (Schiff.), Lymantria monacha (L.) and Diprion pini (L.); the largest control area was in Mittelfranken. More than half the total area was treated to control P. flammea, with exceptionally large-scale spraying operations in 1931, 1956 and 1961-62. In 1960, the most extensive campaigns were against D. pini. Over the whole period, about 60% of the spraying was carried out in state-owned forests; widespread treatments in other forests began only in 1950. Most of the treated areas are situated in only 15 forest districts that are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of insect pests. A study of the history of infestations in treated and untreated areas shows that the use of insecticides can reduce damage but in the long term has little influence on the population fluctuations of the insects concerned.

Klimetzek D (1976) Bildschlüssel der Ameisenfauna Badens. Mitt Bad Landesver Naturkunde u Naturschutz 11: 345-357.

Pictorial key of the ants of Baden: A pictorial key based on the worker forms is given for 67 species of ants found in Baden (W. Germany); this includes some of the more common, introduced species. Names of subspecies or varieties are not used.

Klimetzek D (1976) Insektenvermehrungen und Sonnenflecken. Forstwiss Centralbl 95: 226-238 [Translation: Insect propagation and sunspots. Environment Canada No. OOENV TR-1281/1977: 23 pp].

This study reviews the effects of sunspots on the weather, gives a chart showing the occurrence of sunspots since 1750 and reviews the literature on their effect on insect reproduction. Any effect exerted would presumably be due to variations in ultraviolet radiation. An attempt is made to relate outbreaks of Bupalus piniarius (L.), Panolis flammea (Schiff.), Lymantria monacha (L.), Dendrolimus pini (L.) and Diprion pini (L.) on pine in four regions of the German Federal Republic (Oberfranken, Mittelfranken, Oberpfalz and Pfalz) during the period 1810-1970 to the sunspot cycle. No definite relation was detected. Outbreaks of B. piniarius, P. flammea and L. monacha appeared to occur two years after a sunspot maximum, but the correlation was not statistically significant and the timing of outbreaks is considered accidental in this respect. The literature on the subject is reviewed.

Klimetzek D, Loskant G, Vité JP, Mori K (1976) Disparlure: differences in pheromone perception between gypsy moth and nun moth. Naturwissenschaften 63: 581-582.

In field experiments in Germany in 1976, the response of adult males of Lymantria monacha (L.) (Porthetria monacha) and L. dispar (L.) (P. dispar) to (7R, 8S)-(+)-disparlure and (7S, 8R)-(-)-disparlure was tested. With combinations of the two enantiomers, the response of L. monacha increased with that of the (+)-disparlure regardless of the concentration of the (-)-disparlure, but the same was not true of L. dispar, in which the response to the combination decreased as the concentration of (-)-disparlure increased.

Vité JP, Klimetzek D, Loskant G, Hedden R, Mori K (1976) Chirality of insect pheromones: response interruption by inactive antipodes. Naturwissenschaften 63: 582-583.

In field experiments in Texas in July 1976, adults of Ips calligraphus (Germ.) were attracted by their two-component pheromone, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, only if cis-verbenol was represented by its (S)-enantiomer. Their response was not altered significantly if (R)-cis-verbenol was also present at a concentration comparable with that of (S)-cis-verbenol, but was very considerably reduced when the concentration of the former was increased 10-fold or more. In field experiments in Germany during July-August 1976, adult males of Lymantria dispar (L.) (Porthetria dispar) were attracted in large numbers by synthetic (7R, 8S)-(+)-disparlure, but in only small numbers by (7S, 8R)-(-)-disparlure, and dilution of the former with the latter diminished the response. It is suggested that these results may be due in both species to inhibitory effects exerted by the 'inactive' optical isomers on the receptor systems of the insects. The 'inactive' isomer is thought to require higher saturation levels at the receptor sites to produce its effects than the pheromone itself, and this is considered to be the reason for the relative effectiveness with which low concentrations of optically impure synthetic compounds mimic pheromones.

Klimetzek D (1977) Die Ameisenfauna des Naturschutzgebietes "Mindelsee" (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Beitr naturk Forsch SüdwDtl 36: 159-171.

Ant fauna of the nature preserve "Mindelsee": 27 ant species belonging to 3 subfamilies were recorded. Mixed nests (approx. 5 % of total nest numbers) were often found between L. niger - M. laevinodis, L. alienus - T. caespitum and L. flavus - M. laevinodis. Local occurrence is described and compared to data from literature.

Klimetzek D, Adlung KG (1977) Ips typographus: Erhöhung der Lockwirkung begifteter und unbegifteter Fangbäume durch synthetische Pheromone. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 148: 120-123.

Increasing attractiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated trap trees to Ips typographus by treatment with synthetic pheromones: Trap trees treated with lindane were less attractive to Ips typographus than untreated trees. Treatment with pheromones increased attractiveness of both groups. Trees treated with pheromones + lindane were the most attractive. In the Black Forest, more beetles were collected on felled trees than on standing ones. In the Hunsruck mountains, there were no significant differences in numbers found on felled and standing trees.

Krawielitzki S, Klimetzek D, Bakke A, Vité JP, Mori K (1977) Field and laboratory response of Ips typographus to optically pure pheromonal components. Z ang Ent 83: 300-302.

The mass aggregation of adults of Ips typographus (L.) in response to a dual pheromone component system consisting of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and cis-verbenol was found in experiments in the Black Forest (German Federal Republic) to depend on the content of the (S)-enantiomer of cis-verbenol. The combination was effective under field conditions, but less obviously so in laboratory tests with crawling beetles.

Klimetzek D, Schönherr J (1978) Unterschiede im Anflugverhalten von Lymantria monacha L. und L. dispar L. an razemisches Disparlur. Anz Schädlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 51: 23-29.

Differences in the attraction of Lymantria monacha L. and L. dispar L. to racemic disparlure: The attraction of Lymantria monacha (L.) and L. dispar (L.) to sticky traps baited with racemic disparlure was tested in the Forest Station of Freiburg-Stadt in the German Federal Republic. A total of 81 traps were placed in a star-shaped formation, with individual traps containing disparlure diluted in pentane to a concentration of 10-5 arranged alternately with traps containing disparlure diluted to 10-3 and control traps containing pentane alone. Laboratory-reared pupae of both species were placed in the centre of the trap formation before the flight period of the natural population. About 5.3% of the adults of L. monacha and about 6.6% of those of L. dispar that emerged from these pupae were recaptured in the traps. During the flight of the natural populations in July-September, 274 adults of L. monacha and 818 of L. dispar were caught in the traps, which were examined daily. No significant difference was observed between the behaviour of the laboratory-reared and the natural populations. The response of L. monacha was greatest (92%) to traps baited with the higher concentration of disparlure, the lower concentration attracting only 7%. The responses of L. dispar to the 2 concentrations did not differ significantly from one another (54 and 43%). It was concluded that the greater amount of (-)disparlure in the 10-3 concentration (as compared to that in the 10-5 concentration) blocked the receptor system of L. dispar, thus cancelling out the attractant response to the (+)-enantiomer. L. monacha on the other hand responded in greater numbers to the higher concentration because the (-)-enantiomer did not suppress the response to the (+)-enantiomer in this species.

Klimetzek D, Wellenstein G (1978) Assimilateentzug und Zuwachsminderung an Forstpflanzen durch Baumläuse (Lachnidae) unter dem Einfluss von Waldameisen (Formicidae). Forstwiss Centralbl 97: 1-12.

Loss of assimilates and increment reduction in forest trees, caused by tree aphids (Lachnidae) associated with wood ants (Formicidae): Stem analysis was used to estimate ht. and diam. increment in 245 pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees for 10 yr before and after the artificial establishment of 2 nests of redwood ants (Formica rufa group) near the trees in 1958. From 1949-58, increment growth was approx. the same at all distances from the ant nests. During 1959-68, trees within 20 m of the nests showed losses of 9% in ht. increment, and of 16% in diam. increment, in comparison with trees more than 40 m from the nests. The reduction in growth was probably due to the removal of assimilates from the trees by aphids that were tended by the ants and were observed to decrease in density away from the nests. Since such increment losses would occur only in a small part of the total forest area, they were not considered economically significant.

Klimetzek D (1978) Versuche zur Überwachung und Bekämpfung des Buchdruckers (Ips typographus L.) mit Hilfe von Insektizid und Pheromonen an stehenden Fangbäumen. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 149: 113-123.

Survey and control of the spruce engraver beetle (Ips typographus) with insecticide and pheromones on standing trap trees: Spruce (Picea abies) and non-host trees, viz. pine (Pinus sylvestris) and broadleaves (Fraxinus excelsior and Quercus spp.), were baited with the pheromone Typolur I (1:10 (S)-cis-verbenol + 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol) and/or treated with the insecticide Nexit (0.5%). The conventional 'trap tree' method of control was greatly improved by the combined application of pheromone and insecticide. Sticky traps on standing spruce trees baited with Typolur I caught more beetles than those on unbaited trees; gallery initiation was also higher in baited trees. When both insecticide and pheromone was applied, large numbers of beetles were killed before gallery construction was begun. One application of insecticide did not prevent subsequent infestation. On pheromone- and insecticide-treated non-host trees, numbers of beetles trapped were 36% (pine) and 23% (broadleaves) of those on similarly treated spruce.

Klimetzek D (1978) Überwachung und Bekämpfung des Buchdruckers (Ips typographus L.) mit TYPOLUR I und Insektiziden. Mitt dtsch Ges allg ang Ent 1: 193-195.

Survey and control of the spruce engraver beetle (Ips typographus L.) with TYPOLURE I and insecticides: TYPOLURE I baited non-host trees proved attractive for Ips typographus, whereas control non-host trees were not. Numbers of dead beetles found in canvas traps around the trunc of pheromone + insecticide treated non-host trees represented 1/4-1/3 respectively of those on host trees treated in the same manner.

Klimetzek D, Vité JP (1978) Einfluss des saisonbedingten Verhaltens beim Buchdrucker auf die Wirksamkeit von Flug- und Landefallen. Allg Forstz 34: 1446-1447.

Effect of seasonal behaviour in Ips typographus on the effectiveness of flight and landing traps: In the Federal German Republic, formulations of the attractant Typolur, which acts on Ips typographus (L.), are being produced that can be used on trap trees or artificial traps during the flight period of the scolytid for monitoring or control purposes. Tests with artificial traps were carried out in forests in the Hesse area in spring and summer 1978. The traps were either of the window trap type of various sizes, which measure flight, or of a type consisting of vertical plastic drain pipes having apertures in the side small enough to exclude clerids; such traps monitor beetle landings. Further details of the traps are given. The vertical height was the same in either case. It was found that the behaviour of the beetles varied with the season, more being taken on the window traps in spring and as many on the landing traps in summer. The window traps proved very effective but there were differences in traps of different sizes and shapes. The landing traps seemed to be equally effective under all conditions. It is concluded from the work that window traps are to be preferred for monitoring purposes, but that a combination of both types of traps might be of great value for control.

Klimetzek D (1979) Insekten-Grossschädlinge an Kiefer in Nordbayern und der Pfalz: Analyse und Vergleich 1810-1970. Freiburger Waldschutz-Abhandlungen 2: 1-173.

Major insect pests on Scots pine in northern Bavaria and the Palatinate. Analysis and comparison 1810-1970: A detailed historical survey was made of the occurrence of Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini and Diprion pini. The frequency of outbreaks was evaluated using an infestation index calculated for each year (0 = not infested; 2 = insects conspicuous but no noticeable damage; 3 = extensive damage), and the distribution of the pests during the period mapped. The observed pattern of infestation was non-random, and the patterns differed in the two regions examined. Distinct synchronization of individual species was observed in the two regions, and the different species fluctuated independently of one another (except for P. flammea and L. monacha). It appears that since approx. 1900 conditions in the Palatinate have changed, becoming less favourable for some insect species.

Klimetzek D (1979) Kieferninsekten in Süddeutschland. Eine historisch-entomologische Studie. Forstwiss Centralbl 98: 277-280.

Pine insects in south Germany. A historical entomological study: A summary of work, but also including data for Franconia, on outbreaks of Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Diprion pini and Dendrolimus pini during 1810-1970. Outbreak areas of the first 4 species are mapped.

Klimetzek D, Sauerwein P, Dimitri L, Vaupel O (1979) Einsatz von TYPOLUR und Fallen gegen Buchdrucker. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 150: 238-242.

Using Typolur and traps against Ips typographus: In trials in 1978 in 5 W. German districts, trap trees and commercial pheromone traps were baited with 3 formulations (I, Ia and II) of Typolur. Brown or white canvas cloth impregnated with 1% Nexit insecticide, tied round Norway spruce and non-host trees (Scots pine and beech) baited with Typolur, resulted in a greatly reduced intensity of attack on the trees while trapping many beetles; the colour of the cloth had no significant effect. Traps, either vertical semi-transparent sheets (window traps), or perforated cylinders, caught 9-20 times as many beetles as small piles of baited logs treated with Nexit.

Klimetzek D, Vité JP, Mori K (1980) Zur Wirkung und Formulierung des Populationslockstoffes des Nutzholzborkenkäfers Trypodendron (= Xyloterus) lineatum. Z ang Ent 89: 57-63.

Studies on the effect and formulation of the population attractant of the striped ambrosia beetle Trypodendron (= Xyloterus) lineatum: During studies carried out in the Black Forest, German Federal Republic, the substance (+ or -)-3,3,7-trimethyl-2,9-dioxatricyclo[3.3.1.04,7]nonane (lineatin) was found to be highly attractive at low concentrations to populations of Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Trypodendron lineatum). X. domesticus (L.) (T. domesticum), a closely related pest of hardwoods, was also attracted by lineatin. Catches of X. lineatus doubled when ethanol and a-pinene [2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene] were added to the lineatin. Trap design influenced the sex ratio of beetles responding to lineatin alone; flight barriers caught females and males at a ratio of 4:5, but perforated cylinder traps were less frequently entered by females.

Francke W, Sauerwein P, Vité JP, Klimetzek D (1980) The pheromone bouquet of Ips amitinus. Naturwissenschaften 67: 147-148.

Studies were carried out in the German Federal Republic on the pheromones of Ips amitinus Eichh., a pest of spruce forests in the mountains of central Europe, in order to determine whether the aggregation of this species on different portions of the trunk of Picea abies from I. typographus (L.), with which it is sympatric, was facilitated by differences in the pheromone bouquet. Analysis of extracts showed that males of I. amitinus produced R-(-)-ipsdienol (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-ol) of 95% optical purity, ipsenol (2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol) and trans-2-methyl-6-methylene-3,7-octadien-2-ol, to which the trivial name 'amitinol' was assigned. Using the same analysis procedure, males of I. typographus were found to produce ipsenol and R-(-)-ipsdienol but lacked amitinol.

Klimetzek D, Francke W (1980) Relationship between the enantiomeric composition of a-pinene in host trees and the production of verbenols in Ips species. Experientia 36: 1343-1345.

On exposure in the laboratory to the vapours of oleoresin from 8 conifers (Pinus spp., Larix spp., Picea, Tsuga and Pseudotsuga), adults of Ips typographus (L.) and I. amitinus (Eichh.) produced verbenol [4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo-[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-ol] in a predictable pattern. This pattern apparently changed in relation to the varied enantiomeric composition of the a -pinene [2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene] contained in the resin of the various coniferous species. For calibration, defined mixtures of (+)- and (-)-a-pinene were used to establish the different levels of beetle response in the production of cis- and trans-verbenol. Methodological and ecological implications of the phenomenon are discussed.

Klimetzek D, Vité JP, König E (1981) Über das Verhalten mitteleuropäischer Trypodendron-Arten gegenüber natürlichen und synthetischen Lockstoffen. Mitt Dtsch Ges allg ang Ent 2: 303-306.

The response of Central European Trypodendron species to natural and synthetic attractants: Laboratory and field experiments were carried out in the German Federal Republic to determine the response of Xyloterus signatus (F.) (Trypodendron signatum), X. domesticus (L.) (T. domesticum) and X. lineatus (Ol.) (T. lineatum) to natural and synthetic attractants. All 3 species produced lineatin [3,3,7-trimethyl-4,9-dioxatricyclo[3.3.1.02,7]nonane] on entering their respective host trees. In the laboratory, pheromone production could also be induced in females enteing ethanol-soaked tissue paper pressed into rolls of cardboard. In the field, all 3 species were attracted to traps baited with synthetic lineatin, particularly when ethanol was added. It appeared that the host species differed according to the content of a-pinene [2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene] and possible other host compounds. Females of X. signatus in oak [Quercus] attracted a higher proportion of the hardwood species (X. signatus and X. domesticus) than of X. lineatus, as did synthetic lineatin plus ethanol used as a standard attractant. X. lineatus could also develop in alder [Alnus] and produced the pheromone in non-host trees. Females of X. lineatus in fir [Abies] attracted mainly X. lineatus, while in alder they mainly attracted the other 2 species. Flight barrier traps were more effective than perforated cylinder traps in capturing all 3 species.

Klimetzek D, Baader EJ, Helbig W (1981) Die Eignung von Lockstoff-Fallen zur Überwachung der Ulmensplintkäfer. Mitt Dtsch Ges allg ang Ent 2: 311-313.

The suitability of pheromone traps for monitoring elm bark-beetles: Field trials were carried out in the German Federal Republic from mid-May to mid-September 1980 to compare the effectiveness of various types of traps, dispensers and pheromone formulations for monitoring Scolytus scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham). Of the 6 types of traps tested, window traps with a water trough caught the largest number of beetles (92%) and perforated cylinders ('landing traps') the smallest. Of the 4 types of dispensers tested, poly(vinyl chloride) or glass vials with perforated stoppers were slightly superior to standard capillaries; polyethylene bags were least effective. The addition of racemic a-multistriatin [[1S-(endo,endo)]-5-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane] to 4-methyl-3-heptanol and cubeb oil was more attractive to S. multistriatus than the addition of (-)- b-multistriatin [the (-)-[1S-(exo,exo)]-isomer]. S. scolytus responded to 4-methyl-3-heptanol plus cubeb oil as well as to a mixture containing these 2 components plus a -multistriatin at 2 different concentrations.

Klimetzek D, Kiesel K, Möhring C, Bakke A (1981) Trypodendron lineatum: reduction of pheromone response by male beetles. Naturwissenschaften 68: 149-151.

Field tests were carried out in the German Federal Republic and Norway to determine whether the response of adults of Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Trypodendron lineatum) to its pheromone lineatin [3,3,7-trimethyl-2,9-dioxatricyclo[3.3.1.04,7]nonane] could be inhibited by the addition of spruce log sections infested with males and females. The results confirmed that the presence of males affected the response of the beetle both to natural and synthetic lineatin, the latter having more effect; the addition of 50 males and females reduced the catch by 40-50% when 1 fibre of synthetic lineatin with a mixture of a-pinene [2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene] and ethanol was offered in landing traps. The presence of males was also found to reduce female pheromone release.

Klimetzek D (1981) Population studies on hill building wood-ants of the Formica rufa-group. Oecologia (Berl) 48: 418-421.

Total inventories of inhabited ant hills of the Formica rufa-group were carried out in a part of the Black Forest (W. Germany) amounting to 1640 ha on five occasions during the period 1966 - 1978. Nest densities of 12,7 to 19,1 per 100 ha were recorded. Mean annual nest mortality for the three most abundant spp. (F. rufa, F. polyctena, F. pratensis) was 21 - 33 %; it remained almost the same during all intervals between inventories for all age classes studied. The mean annual nest natality varied between 31 and 51 %. Mean life expectancy of small nests was markedly lower than that of large nests. Consequently in the large size classes the numbers of old nests were significantly greater than the numbers of newly founded nests. Results are compared with those recorded in the literature for palearctic and nearctic species belonging to the Formica rufa-group.

Schurig V, Weber R, Klimetzek D, Kohnle U, Mori K (1982) Enantiomeric composition of "lineatin" in three sympatric ambrosia beetles. Naturwissenschaften 69: 602 - 603.

Enantiomeric composition of the chiral natural pheromone lineatin [3,3,7-trimethyl-4,9-dioxatricyclo[3.3.1.02,7]nonane]) of all three Trypodendron spp. was determined employing enantiospecific complexation das chromatography. Results show that Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Trypodendron lineatum), X. domesticus (L.) (T. domesticum) and X. signatus (F.) (T. signatum) enantioselectively produce (+)-[1R,4S,5R,7R]-lineatin with an enantiomeric purity of ee 99 %.

Payne TL, Klimetzek D, Kohnle U, Mori K (1983) Electrophysiological and field responses of Trypodendron spp. to enantiomers of lineatin. Z ang Ent 95: 272-276.

Laboratory and field studies carried out in the Black Forest, German Federal Republic on the antennal olfactory and behavioural responses of Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Trypodendron lineatum), X. domesticus (L.) (T. domesticum) and X. signatus (F.) (T. signatum) to their aggregation pheromone lineatin [3,3,7-trimethyl-4,9-dioxatricyclo[3.3.1.02,7]nonane] revealed that these responses were specific to the (+)-enantiomer. The (-)-enantiomer was inactive, showing no indication of synergistic or repellent effects. The results indicated that these closely-related species use an identical pheromone signal and suggested that reproductive isolation is achieved by other mechanisms.

Klimetzek D, Kopp HP (1983) Scolytid pheromone research in West Germany. Forestry Commission Bull No. 60: 50-58.

The results are presented of extensive investigations in the German Federal Republic on pheromone traps for scolytid vectors (especially in the genera Scolytus and Acrantus (Pteleobius)) of Dutch elm disease (caused by Ceratocystis ulmi) in elms (Ulmus spp.). It was shown that a single bait containing a -multistriatin [(endo,endo)-5-ethyl-2,4-dimethyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane] attracted both S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham). In studies on the performance of different dispensers for synthetic pheromones in window traps, poly(vinyl chloride) and glass tubes with perforated stoppers proved similar in the release of the standard mixture to capillaries containing the components separately, but polyethylene bags were less effective. In tests of synthetic baits for attracting Scolytus spp. to trap trees, U. carpinifolia was heavily infested, but not U. glabra or U. laevis, regardless of whether baited with a-multistriatin, 4-methyl-3-heptanol and cubeboil or not. Regardless of the bait used, window traps were more efficient than Norwegian cylinder traps. Increasing the optical component of landing traps by placing them outside the forest and painting them white confirmed that good visibility of the traps strongly influences beetle catch.

Klimetzek D (1983) Die Verbreitung der Ameisen im Mindelsee-Gebiet. Pp 661 - 669 in Schmid G (Hrsg) Der Mindelsee bei Radolfzell. Monographie eines Naturschutzgebietes auf dem Bodanrück. Natur- u Landschaftsschutzgebiete Bad-Württ (Karlsruhe) 11: 796 pp.

The distribution of ants in the nature preserve "Mindelsee": 87 traps were set out in 1978 in 9 characteristic areas of the nature preserve "Mindelsee" (W. Germany) and collected in regular intervals of 30-40 days at 7 different occasions. 26 species from 3 subfamilies were recorded. Of these, hygrophilic spp were 4-8 times more abundant than the xerophilic spp. Annual activity of the most abundant 6 spp. is shown in graphs.

Klimetzek D (1984) Grundlagen einer Überwachung und Bekämpfung der Nutzholzborkenkäfer (Trypodendron spp.) mit Lock- und Ablenkstoffen. Freiburger Waldschutz-Abhandlungen 5: 1-227 (Traduction: Données de base pour une surveillance et une lutte contre les Scolytidés (Trypodendron spp.) au moyen de substances attractives et répulsives. Sovilo, 207 pp).

Principles for monitoring and controlling ambrosia beetles (Trypodendron spp.) with attractants and repellents: The principles of monitoring and controlling Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Trypodendron lineatum) on conifers and X. domesticus (L.) (T. domesticum) and X. signatus (F.) (T. signatum) on deciduous trees in central Europe using attractants and repellents are discussed with particular reference to their biology; the spreading and development of ambrosia fungi; pheromones; factors influencing beetle attack; population ecology; harmfulness; pest management; application of attractants (traps, dispensers, and effectiveness of attractants including lineatin [3,3,7-trimethyl-4,9-dioxatricyclo[3.3.1.02,7]nonane]);effectiveness of repellents; and prospects for the practical use of pheromones.

Francke W, Borchert J, Klimetzek D (1985) Volatile constituents of the red wood ant Formica rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Z Naturforsch 40c: 661-664.

From workers of the red wood ant Formica rufa L., 68 compounds could be identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Abdomina contain a row of bishomologue saturated and unsaturated uneven numbered hydrocarbonds with undecane as the major product. In addition, 13 formic acid esters could be identified among which hexadecyl formate is present in particularly large amounts. Main components of the head extracts are methyl 3-ethyl-4-methylpentanoate, 3-ethyl-4-methylpentanol and tricosane.

Klimetzek D, Vité JP (1986) Die Wirkung insektenbürtiger Duftstoffe auf das Aggregationsverhalten des mediterranen Kiefernborkenkäfers Orthotomicus erosus. Z ang Ent 101: 239-243.

The effect of insect-produced attractants on the aggregation behaviour of the Mediterranean pine engraver beetle Orthotomicus erosus: In field experiments in south-western France, the scolytid Orthotomicus erosus was caught mostly in traps baited with a combination of the beetle produced compounds 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and ipsdienol. When used together with the former compound, an increase in concentration of up to 1000-fold of racemic ipsdienol resulted in a continual increase in numbers of O. erosus and Ips sexdentatus caught, accompanied by a steady increase in the percentage of females. It is assumed that 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol influences the landing behaviour of O. erosus, while ipsdienol acts as a long-distance signal. With O. erosus, ipsdienol could not be replaced by the non-specific pheromone components (S)-cis-verbenol or racemic frontalin. However, when used together with the beetle-produced binary mixture, racemic frontalin in particular had an additive kairomonal effect.

Klimetzek D (ed) (1986) Forest entomology. For Ecol Manag 15: 1-79.

A special issue including 8 papers presented at Section 13, 17th International Congress of Entomology, 20-26 Aug. 1984, held in Hamburg, German Federal Republic.

Klimetzek D, Köhler J, Vité JP, Kohnle U (1986) Dosage response to ethanol mediates host selection by "secondary" bark beetles. Naturwissenschaften 73: 270-272.

The effect of ethanol concentration on the responses of the scolytids Ips typographus, Leperisinus varius, Hylurgops palliatus and Tomicus piniperda, the xyleborins Trypodendron lineatum [Xyloterus lineatus], Xyleborus dispar, X. saxeseni [Xyleborinus saxeseni] and Xylosandrus germanus and the lymexylid Hylecoetus dermestoides to flight barrier traps baited with their respective pheromones and/or ethanol was investigated in the field in the German Federal Republic. Ethanol of different concentrations was released at rates of 0.001-250 mg/h. The response of all 4 xyleborins, Hylurgops palliatus and Hylecoetus dermestoides increased almost linearly with an increase in ethanol concentration. However, in Tomicus piniperda, the response to host monoterpenes decreased with increasing ethanol concentrations, and the addition of ethanol to the pheromone of I. typographus led to a reduction of the response at all concentrations. In L. varius, a low concentration of ethanol resulted in a highly synergistic effect with the male pheromone exo-brevicomin, resulting in a high number of female beetles being trapped. Higher concentrations of ethanol strongly reduced this response. It was concluded that high ethanol concentrations enhance the response of non-aggressive ('secondary') scolytids and xyleborins to aggregate on host trees, but interfere with the pheromone response among aggressive species.

Klimetzek D, Köhler J, Krohn S, Francke W (1989) Das Pheromon-System des Waldreben-Borkenkäfers Xylocleptes bispinus Duft. (Col., Scolytidae). Z ang Ent 107: 304-309.

The pheromone system of the Clematis bark-beetle, Xylocleptes bispinus Duft. (Col., Scolytidae): In investigations in a forest area of the German Federal on the pheromone system of Xylocleptes bispinus, many beetles were trapped with infested host material (Clematis vitalba) and synthetic baits; flight activity peaked in the evening with the onset of dusk and decreasing temperatures. Host material alone or infested with females was not attractive or repellent, but male baits were attractive to conspecifics. Chemical analysis of both sexes revealed ipsenol as the major male-specific pheromone component. In addition, small amounts of ipsenon (2-methyl-6-methylen-7-octen-4-on) were regularly present in males. Up to now, both compounds were known only from scolytids infesting conifers. In the field, synthetic ipsenol attracted many adults of X. bispinus. 1-Octen-3-ol, which was found in the headspace of infested material but not in the beetles themselves, acted as a repellent and supposedly acted to prevent beetle attack on unsuitable host material.

Klimetzek D, Bartels J, Francke W (1989) Das Pheromon-System des Bunten Ulmenbastkäfers Pteleobius vittatus (F.) (Col., Scolytidae). Z ang Ent 107: 518-523.

The pheromone system of the elm bark beetle Pteleobius vittatus (F.) (Col., Scolytidae): Pteleobius vittatus, a scolytid pest of elms [Ulmus], releases 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol as a main volatile besides equal amounts of cis-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-5-methyltetrahydrofuran (cis-pityol) and cis-3-hydroxy-2,2,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran (cis-vittatol). The vinylcarbinol was previously known as an aggregation pheromone of conifer-infesting scolytids; cis-pityol is a new constituent of Coleoptera, cis-vittatol a new insect volatile. Structural connections of these compounds and their possible biogenetic relationships are discussed. During field tests in the German Federal Republic, the combination of all 3 compounds proved to be particularly attractive and was by far superior to single components or 2-component mixtures. Using optically active cis-vittatol, the combination containing the (-)-enantiomer attracted by far the most P. vittatus, and was only bait to attract Nemosema elongatum (L.), a predator of scolytids.

Klimetzek D, Vité JP (1989) Die tierischen Schädlinge der Fichte. Pp 40-133 & 459-482 in Schmidt-Vogt H (ed.) Die Fichte Bd II/2, Hamburg u Berlin: Parey-Vlg, 607 pp.

This section of the book (dealing with Picea spp.) covers insect pests and game damage.

Klimetzek D, Kobel-Lamparski A (1990) Die Ameisenfauna des Naturschutzgebietes "Isteiner Klotz". Mitt bad Landesver Naturkunde u Naturschutz NF 15: 145-158.

Ant fauna of the "Isteiner Klotz" preserve: Traps were set out in almost all the forest communities and dry grassy areas of the nature preserve "Isteiner Klotz." In 1974 and 1975 a total of 28 ant species from 3 subfamilies were identified. The regional incidence of the species is described and compared with the most important data from literature. The Isteiner Klotz has a high diversity of ant species; its ant fauna is primarily comprised of xerothermic species. The dry grassy areas and white oak forest, both extremely dry sites, had the greatest number of species (15-17), whereas only 4-8 species were observed in the beech and beech-linden forest. Many ant species displayed an affinity for the extremely dry and warm sites. The remaining species were less restricted and were usually observed in eight or more of the fourteen study areas.

Klimetzek D (1990) Fichtenanbau und Fichtenschädlinge in Mitteleuropa. Schweiz Z Forstwes 141: 447-461.

Spruce cultivation and spruce pests in central Europe: A review of the number of pest species and the importance of specialized insect pests of Picea spp. in W. and E. North America, and in the various regions of Europe. The relative significance of needle, cone, shoot and stem pests and game (deer) damage is discussed.

Klimetzek D (1990) Population dynamics of pine feeding insects: a historical study. Pp 3-10 in WATT AD et al (eds) Population dynamics of forest insects. Andover/ UK: Intercept Ltd, 408 pp.

The pine looper Bupalus piniarius (L.), pine beauty moth Panolis flammea (D. & S.), nun moth Lymantria monacha (L.) and common pine sawfly Diprion pini (L.) have been forest pests in Germany since at least 1800. This paper describes their occurrence through an analysis of historica data for state-owned forests in Northern Bavaria (administrative areas Oberfranken, Mittelfranken and Oberpfalz) and Southwest Germany (Pfalz) for the years 1811 - 1988. Since the beginning of regulated forestry at about 1800, the frequency and intensity of outbreaks in these areas was similar for about 100 years. Since then, the intensity of outbreaks in Northern Bavaria has been 4 to 8 times higher than in Pfalz. Reasons for these different patterns are discussed.

Klimetzek D, Schlenstedt L (1991) Waldschutz gegen Borkenkäfer: Pheromone oder Insektizideinsatz? Allg Forstz 46: 1118-1120.

Forest protection against bark beetles: pheromones or insecticides?: The use of semiochemicals or insecticides in pest management systems of bark beetles is viewed in relation to optimization of resources investment, comparing beetle numbers in univoltine, requisite-governed woodboring Trypodendron lineatum (Oliv.) with multigeneration bark inhabiting Ips typographus (L.).

Klimetzek D, Schlenstedt L (1991) Waldschutz gegen Borkenkäfer: Der Beitrag von Duftstoffmeteorologie und Populationsdynamik. Anz Schädlingskde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 64: 121-128.

Forest protection against bark beetles: the contribution of pheromone meteorology and population dynamics: The use of semiochemicals in conifer pest management systems for the Scolytidae is discussed. The efficiency of different numbers and distances between traps was analysed using steady state models and compared using published data and field data from Germany. Competition between beetle-infested logs and traps, attractive distance and overlap of pheromone plume was compared for Trypodendron lineatum using models which assume a Gauss distribution of concentration decrease around a pheromone source. For (+)-lineatin (reaction threshold 0.1 ng/m3, production 6.43 ng/female/d, duration of production 3 d/female), 100,000 females/ha and a flight period of 2 weeks, daily mean production is 128.6 ug/ha. Attractive distance xmax is 20-40 cm for 1 T. lineatum-female and 13-16 m for a trap with 1 CONREL-dispenser (mean release rate 10 µg/d (+)-lineatin). A 10-fold increase of attractive distance xmax needs a 100-fold increase of pheromone release rate according to the model, and 200-fold according to field experiments. In trapping experiments, Coleoptera (34 families, with staphylinids and rhizophagids the most abundant) were the most abundant nontarget captures (among 17 insect orders counted). Mass trapping can be successful in logging areas and forests, but the exclusion of nontarget insects is an unsolved problem, and populations reduced by trapping can be compensated by increasing reproduction and competitive displacement by secondary bark beetle species.

Klimetzek D, Pelz DR (1992) Nest counts versus trapping in ant surveys: influence on diversity. Pp 171-179 in Billen J (ed.) Biology and evolution of social insects. Leuven/Belgium: Leuven Univ Press, 390 pp.

Published data on some 25 inventories of ant fauna from Europe, North America and Japan were analysed using uni- and multivariate approaches. Surveys conducted at the same locality usually provided the same number of, although not identical, ant species. However, nest counts yielded higher species numbers with increasing sampling effort. Also, trapping involved 10- to 100-times more individuals than did nest counts. Indices for species diversity based on the S:N-relationship varied accordingly depending on methodology.

Klimetzek D (1992) Schädlingsbelastung der Waldbäume in Mitteleuropa und Nordamerika. Forstwiss Centralbl 111: 61-69.

The insect pest threat to forest trees in Central Europe and North America: On the basis of published literature, an analysis is made of the insect pests of 172 tree species in Central Europe and eastern and western North America. The 2380 insect species are grouped by distribution data, host records, and occurrence on different parts of the trees. Specialist and generalist insects are differentiated. Conifers and broadleaves have their own particular insect faunas, but niche occupation is similar: stem 40%, foliage 30%, and cones/fruit, roots, buds and shoots 30%. Pinus spp. and Quercus spp. have the greatest number of insect pests. The generalist species occur transcontinentally, whereas the 'specialist' insects differ regionally. The pest faunas exhibit little overlap. The greatest number of 'specialist' insect pests is usually observed in the native distribution areas of the individual tree species or genera. Insect pests on conifers tend to be specialized on individual genera, whereas the insects on broadleaves have a higher proportion of generalists.

Klimetzek D, Klötgen E (1993) Formica sanguinea Latr. im Südschwarzwald. Mitt bad Landesver Naturkunde u Naturschutz NF 15: 661-666.

Formica sanguinea Latr. in the southern Black Forest (W. Germany): In a forested area (1640 ha) near Freiburg/Br. (W. Germany), a total of 125 inhabited nests (= 7,6/100 ha) of F. sanguinea were found in 1991. Nest mounds seldom exceeded heights of 10 cm, circumference varied between 1-3 m. Nest densities were highest between 600-800 m alt.

Klimetzek D (1993) Baumarten und ihre Schadinsekten auf der Nordhalbkugel. Mitt dtsch Ges allg ang Ent 8: 503-509.

Tree species and their insect pests in the northern hemisphere: Numbers of pest insects for 172 species of trees in central Europe and eastern and western North America were compiled from published data: 2380 species of insect pests were recorded, three-quarters of them being Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. A distinction was made between oligophagous and polyphagous species. Both groups occupy niches of all trees investigated, with a higher proportion of trunk-inhabiting species on conifers, and of leaf-eating species on broadleaves. Susceptibility to infestation, as expressed by number of recorded pest species, was not the same in the 3 regions, and the insect faunas overlapped only a little. These findings exemplify the necessity of defining growth regions when stating insect risk potential in forest trees.

Klimetzek D (1993) Pheromonbiologie der Waldinsekten. Forst- u Holz 48: 27-30.

Pheromone biology of forest insects: Mechanisms of chemical communication and potentials for using semiochemicals for pest management are reviewed for Hylobius abietis, Lymantria monacha, Lymantria dispar, Rhyacionia buoliana, Zeiraphera diniana, Choristoneura murinana and Tortrix viridana.

Klimetzek D, Faas G (1994) Influence of weather and nest site on the nuptial flight of hill-building wood-ants of the Formica rufa-group (Hym., Formicidae). Z ang Ent 117: 508-518.

The production of alatae and nuptial flight of hill-building wood-ants of the Formica rufa-group were studied from April to August 1992 on 1700 ha of forest near Freiburg. Winged ants were found in 28.7% of the 331 nests examined (F. polyctena 27%, F. rufa 27%, F. lugubris 37%, F. pratensis 48%, F. truncorum 0%). The likelihood of finding alatae rose with nest height and circumference; previous damage of the nest mound showed no negative effects. Of the alatae-nests, 26% produced male male only; 38% male male + female female ; 36% male male only. The pure male male -nests were found in F. polyctena and F. rufa but not in the other species. The production of sexuals lasted 2.5 weeks in F. rufa, 3.7 weeks in F. polyctena, 4.3 weeks in F. lugubris, and 6.3 weeks in F. pratensis. Nests producing sexuals were predominantly found at lower altitudes, the first appearance of alatae was delayed by 1-4 weeks per 100 m increase in altitude. An exception occurred in some nest above 800 m probably due to the temperature inversion. Nuptial flight was recorded on 20 days; and on 5 of these days more than one ant species was swarming.

Klimetzek D (1994) Potential impact of forest pests on trees: a statistical approach. Pp 243-249 in Leather S et al. (eds) Individuals, populations and patterns in ecology. Andover/ UK: Intercept Ltd, 491 pp.

This contribution is a comparative analysis of species occurrence patterns of phytophage forest pests on trees and other wood plants in Europe. As each of the pest species is often closely associated with its host, it can be assumed that for typical associations of forest trees there exists a corresponding association of noxious pests and their antagonists. Species richness was compiled from published sources and analysed using different multivariate approaches. Data give potential maximal pest load and may be biased by the frequency und economic significance of pest species resp. particular forest types. Approximately 3000 European forest pests were investigated. They occur on 313 trees and other ligneous plants. Only one single host plant is recorded for about 1000 (= 30 %) specialist pests. Multiple host use, depending i.a. upon host-plant range and feeding habits of associated pest species is increasingly scarce; nevertheless, about 100 (= 3 %) extreme generalists occur on 11 or more wood plants. Major groups are the acari and insects; approximately 2500 of the European insects belonging to 9 orders are harmful to wood plants. Information is given on the structure of phytophage guilds using distributional data, host records and occurrence on different parts of the trees. Adapted species, which attack only few hosts, and generalists occurring on many or all, were differentiated.

Klimetzek D (1994) Waldschutz aktuell: CO2-Belastung und Waldgärtner-Befall. Der Wald (Berl) 44: 274-275.

Forest pest management. CO2-load and Tomicus attack: The influence of CO2 on beetle attack and reproduction in univoltine bark inhabiting Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.) and T. minor (HART.) and the use of semiochemicals in pest management systems of these bark beetles is viewed in relation to attack density and susceptibility of pine host trees.

Klimetzek D, Kaiser M (1995) Zur Ökologie der Formica rufa- Gruppe. Waldhygiene 20: 243-254.

On the ecology of the Formica rufa- group: Total surveys of 1640 ha in 1976, 1978, 1991 and 1992 revealed mean nest densities between 14,8 and 19,1 per 100 ha (F. polyctena FÖRST.: 44 %, F. rufa L.: 38 %, F. pratensis RETZ.: 10 %, F. lugubris ZETT.: 6 %, F. truncorum FABR.: 2 %). F. rufa had a high proportion of single nests, whereas F. polyctena predominantly formed large colonies. The altitudinal and spatial distribution are analysed for each inventory and shown in maps.

Klimetzek D & Yue C (1997) Climate and forest insect outbreaks. Biologia Bratislava 52: 153-157.

Outbreaks of 2 bark beetle species (Ips typographus, Pityogenes chalcographus) infesting spruce from 1970-1993, of 5 species of pine feeding Lepidoptera (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini) as well as of sawflies (Diprion pini) from 1800-1994 in southern Germany were analysed using multivariate approaches to compare interactions between species, geographical regions and weather patterns, using local meteorological data for the time period 1881-1994. Bark beetles on spruce showed a distinct cyclic pattern with intervals of 5 to 8 years between peaks for major damage that was not apparent in the climate-governed supply of host trees. Time series analysis for pine insects revealed a common cyclic pattern with recurring periods of 10.2 and 32.3 years, supplemented by 14.9/16.2 for B. piniarius. Heavy infestations by L. monacha generally occurred at summer temperatures markedly above the average, while the influence of precipitation was less evident. B. piniarius and Dendrolimus pini mainly occurred after cold and dry winters.

Klimetzek D (2000) Siedlungsverhalten und Populationsdynamik hügelbauender Waldameisen im Freiburger Raum. Forstwiss. Tagung: Modell für Interdisziplinarität. Tagungsband (Freiburg) 92.

The temporal and spatial distribution and environmental factors influencing colony foundation of hill-building red wood-ants (Formica rufa-group) were analysed in a forest area of 1640 ha near Freiburg/Br. At 8 total inventories in different years during the period 1966 - 1997, nest densities varied between 12,7 and 19,1 per 100 ha. F. rufa L. had a high proportion of single nests, whereas F. polyctena Först. predominantly formed large colonies and, on the average, had twice as many nests/colony as F. rufa. Average distances to the nearest neighbor varied between 1 - 40 m, higher values were increasingly rare. According to different nest mortalities, the resulting age structure was species specific. Mean life expectancy of small nests was markedly lower than that of large nests. Associations of the single species varied. According to their spatial distribution, correlations were found between F. polyctena - F. lugubris Zett. and F. rufa - F. pratensis Retz., but usually, high nest densities of one excluded the occurrence of other species.

Yue C, Pelz D R, Klimetzek D (2005) Adaptive Klumpenstichprobenverfahren am Beispiel der Schätzung der Ameisendichte. DVFFA - IUFRO - Die Grüne Reihe, 317 - 325.

Adaptive cluster sampling is especially suited for the assessment of clustered populations, the selection of elements depends on the results up to this point. The study applied the adaptive cluster design to the assessment of the density of ant nests in the city forest of Freiburg. The efficiency of the adaptive design for varying grid densities, sampling sizes, and aggregation indices has been studied for the assessment of ant nests. The adaptive design is efficient if the variance within the network is close to the variance of the population and the sample size of the final sample is close to the initial sample size. This implies that the population is clustered and that the elements are rare. For these conditions the adaptive cluster sampling design is more efficient than the random or systematic sampling procedure.